When We Met Other Human Species

  • Published: 10 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: teamrock.pro/user/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 5 492

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   3 months back

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.

    The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.

    (Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

    • Kayleigh Groenendal
      Kayleigh Groenendal  21 hours back

      Maybe they should be considered different races since technically all humans on earth today are considered the same race.

    • Tague Relyea
      Tague Relyea  5 days back

      Denisovens we’re probably hot

    • Tague Relyea
      Tague Relyea  5 days back

      Ever hear of a fckn chiweenie? How bout a labradoodle?

    • rh1507
      rh1507  2 weeks back

      It seems illogical that our species could successfully breed with a different biped species. Of course there are several variations of our species but we are all of the same species.

    • Adela Hogarth
      Adela Hogarth  3 weeks back

      They weren't different species.

      I'm a reptile handler enthusiast in Australia and there's perfect examples of one species looking so radically different, with vastly different hunting strategies, egg-clutching behaviour, and general size and appearance ... and yet they're the same species.

      The common carpet python and the diamond python.

      Both of them morelia spilota...

      Their personalities, colouration, hunting strategies, and even their average clutch sizes are wildly divergent.

      Both of them interbreed and produce fertile young. Both of them produce hybrids. That being said, in the wild they had become geographically locked into different environments with the Holocene epoch, and over thousands of generations have become very different looking and behaviourally incongruent subspecies of the whole.

      And these differences are worlds apart on their own, just not enough to create two distinct species.

      Another common example? Dogs. All of them have been carefully bred and undertaken significant animal husbandry that you can have dogs the size of your hand, to dogs that weigh as much as a person. Still the same species.

  • Lynn Troller
    Lynn Troller  33 minutes back

    One day, the whole world will MARVEL at the height and depth and magnitude of the deception that is the transpeciation evolutionism religion.

    • Cate
      Cate  2 hours back

      It’s leviOsa, not levioSA.

      • PyroMancer2k
        PyroMancer2k  3 hours back

        I think we mated them to death. :)

        After all if you merge two populations the larger one's DNA is going to remain predominant, unless the smaller one has some huge advantage. There was likely some tribe mergers along with that interbreeding and as the migrating human numbers increased you have several Neanderthals breeding with humans so their children are 1/2 Neanderthals and those kids also mate with human making their children 1/4 Neanderthal, followed by 1/8, 1/16, and so on.

        A slow gradual extinction which replaces them over time.

        • Jokester Weeb
          Jokester Weeb  6 hours back

          if i could choose a superpower, it would be to open windows in space that shows snippets of history thousands or hundreds of thousands of years ago. I just love imagining what once were, and the civilisations of ancient people. At the same time, it also feels sad that all of that history is lost in time. Seeing ancient structures gives me a sense of nostalgia for what was once there, despite obviously never having been related to it.

          • 羅百尉
            羅百尉  10 hours back

            EPAS1 actually gives Tibetans a lower level of hemoglobin levels

            • raju lasser
              raju lasser  2 days back

              I have an oval shaped skull and I'm offended

              • kweassa
                kweassa  2 days back

                Thanks for the diabetes, uncle Nean.

                • F H W
                  F H W  2 days back

                  We are Hybrids

                  • lucyluna00
                    lucyluna00  3 days back

                    Ugh, eww humans, they are still terrible no matter where we evolve...but this was neat!

                    • Push Back
                      Push Back  3 days back

                      "...an interbreeding event..."

                      I'll just leave that there.

                      • Carolyn Norton
                        Carolyn Norton  3 days back

                        A wonderful and informative presentation. Thank you.

                        • Faith T
                          Faith T  3 days back

                          Maasai in Africa have Neanderthal DNA.

                          • Marylou Blackwell
                            Marylou Blackwell  4 days back

                            Neanderthals lives matter

                            • Steve's art n fun channel Stephen hall

                              How could u not interbreed. U like what u like.

                              • Manuel Popp
                                Manuel Popp  4 days back

                                If we can interbreed with them, are they even a different species? Or: Are Europeans and Asians even the same species as subsaharean Africans if they differ in particular genes and are mixed with neanderthals?

                                • Penelope Johnson
                                  Penelope Johnson  4 days back

                                  Who were The First Ancient Cartographers?

                                  • Buna
                                    Buna  2 days back

                                    Penelope Johnson did maps even exist during the time? 🤔

                                • 凃孝霖
                                  凃孝霖  6 days back

                                  I've always been curious, there's no way our ancestors could ever tell that other hominid species were separate species when they encountered each other no?

                                  • Mazing Worldof Megan
                                    Mazing Worldof Megan  6 days back

                                    Do you think having one type of DNA would explain why we have different ways of thinking

                                    • Mediocre
                                      Mediocre  6 days back

                                      Why are the different races of humans not treated as separate sub species? They’re obviously distinct and evolved and adapted in their own different environment, I mean humans change and evolve just like every other animal

                                      • Carolyn Reynolds
                                        Carolyn Reynolds  6 days back

                                        Modern human did not migrate out of Africa. Stop connecting the wrong dots.

                                        • Veronica Obiglio
                                          Veronica Obiglio  6 days back

                                          Intelligence is the difference

                                          • Veronica Obiglio
                                            Veronica Obiglio  6 days back

                                            O laimos kondos

                                            • Veronica Obiglio
                                              Veronica Obiglio  6 days back

                                              They couldnt speak
                                              And move the arms like us

                                              • Ezekiel James
                                                Ezekiel James  6 days back

                                                Dude, there is no 100000000000 years.. Your evolution theory is failing and there is no solid proof of just one occurrence of it even happening..

                                                Creation Creation Creation..

                                                • Dennis Gawera
                                                  Dennis Gawera  3 days back

                                                  You apparently have a double dose of Neanderthal DNA.

                                              • LLO
                                                LLO  6 days back

                                                Gee humans mated with other hominids...Hell humans screw sheep and goats. I've been saying that if we were compatible it would happen based on what humans do now. I've been saying this for 30 years! Why would a human male kill a woman he can have sex with when there were VERY FEW hominids!

                                                • The Garden Prophet
                                                  The Garden Prophet  6 days back

                                                  They probably disappeared from being hunted. Humans have quite the history of doing that.

                                                  • Mma Series
                                                    Mma Series  7 days back

                                                    Isnt it crazy how you can get to know so much information from the internet. I Mean our generation Are going to be so clever and have deep knowledge, only a scientist would have known thesr things 30 years ago.

                                                    • Tito Burney
                                                      Tito Burney  7 days back

                                                      How much modern human DNA has been found in non modern human specimens. I have a theory that modern humans screwed and out screw our ancestors and cousins into extinction. Climate change a factor an well. But the fact that mitochondrial DNA was found suggest that we were sticking it to everything we could and population estimates suggest that the other humans weren't spreading their seed as prolifically. Therefore unable to keep up with our reproductive rates and falling victim to humanoid lust eventually were absorbed into the modern human species. One can also argue that were a subclass of the same species since we could successfully reproduce without producing sterile offspring. Hmmm, one to grow on.

                                                      • Peter Amarillo
                                                        Peter Amarillo  7 days back

                                                        Great video

                                                        • blisscick
                                                          blisscick  7 days back

                                                          There is to many questions

                                                          • Dennis Gawera
                                                            Dennis Gawera  3 days back

                                                            There are too many questions. Are you a blond Neanderthal ?
                                                            That's one of the questions.

                                                        • Beaux Dup
                                                          Beaux Dup  7 days back

                                                          Scientist A, "hey I found a coupe bones", Scientist B "what are they from? "Scientist A "I am not sure yet, but they look like ape bones," Scientist B" just a few bones look like ape bones?" Scientist A no but there are so many easily deceived people who are willfully ignorant and ready to believe anything that they will accept this knowledge as fact! "Scientist B" oh yeah those democrats will believe anything, maybe you can convince them to sell their soul, kill their babies, worship idols, pedophiles, actors, pop singers, athletes, money, themselves, and maybe even Bernie Sanders? Scientist A, nah just the bones for now, your going too far!

                                                          • blisscick
                                                            blisscick  1 weeks back

                                                            So question since the Neanderthals headlong gated skulls and they were not from Africa then why did the Egyptians worship this elongated skull. Why did wrap their infants heads to make them elongated?

                                                            • rakification
                                                              rakification  1 weeks back

                                                              Just to add: the narrative about the lack of Neanderthals genomes in sub Sahara Africa is not correct, because of many back migrations from Eurasia to Africa. It's obviously with the people in Eritrea and some Ethiopian folks, but also in Nigeria, South Africa etc are tribes with Eurasian ancestry DNA from breeding, especially in the last 6000 years.

                                                              • Ding Dong
                                                                Ding Dong  1 weeks back

                                                                I dont belive all the Neanderthals and homosepians breeded together. How many times did they fight against each other. I think homosepians have been around since the Jurassic age.

                                                                • Jackson V
                                                                  Jackson V  1 weeks back

                                                                  Those holes in the top of some of the skulls were evidence that a surgery was performer to get demons out.

                                                                  • BlackSuave44
                                                                    BlackSuave44  1 weeks back

                                                                    Am I the only one annoyed by him saying 'Neander TALLS'??

                                                                    I'm pretty sure it's OK to include the 'h' in Neanderthals.

                                                                    • MusicIsSoMuchFun Piano
                                                                      MusicIsSoMuchFun Piano  1 weeks back

                                                                      And that's why some of us can swim in the arctic ocean in winter, while others can run 4:00 miles for a marathon in the heat. The end...

                                                                      • Brandon Castle
                                                                        Brandon Castle  1 weeks back

                                                                        OOOOORRRRRRRR, evolution!

                                                                        • oldcowbb
                                                                          oldcowbb  1 weeks back

                                                                          imagine how bad racism will be if other hominin still exist

                                                                          • Feiner Fug
                                                                            Feiner Fug  1 weeks back

                                                                            That would be „speciesism“, then :-)

                                                                        • zoky Zura
                                                                          zoky Zura  1 weeks back

                                                                          Wow this videos tell you so much about whole lot of nothing.

                                                                          • ZERO TWO Eto
                                                                            ZERO TWO Eto  1 weeks back

                                                                            i am not alone i got my mama

                                                                            • Eli Amos
                                                                              Eli Amos  1 weeks back

                                                                              Neanderthals On Corsica Cool!!

                                                                              • Hero4fun
                                                                                Hero4fun  1 weeks back

                                                                                I think my neighbour is a neanderthal, he looks exactly like the description from this video. Why should I do? Should I Call the police or capture him myself, show him to the world and win a nobel price?

                                                                                • Craig Banholzer
                                                                                  Craig Banholzer  1 weeks back

                                                                                  Is there a reason that the family tree is upside down in this presentation? At first, it seemed to represent two groups integrating in recent times.

                                                                                  • Tom Fuller
                                                                                    Tom Fuller  1 weeks back

                                                                                    PBS could mess up a one naked man parade in a ghost town.

                                                                                    • sherman squires
                                                                                      sherman squires  1 weeks back

                                                                                      Have we really discovered fossils of Neanderthals? They are found in stone, right?

                                                                                      • Skyler Arroniz
                                                                                        Skyler Arroniz  2 weeks back

                                                                                        Waite so the neanderthals mated with other humanoids in Siberia so then who are their ancestors. Where they already their or did they migrate?

                                                                                        If they where already there then this whole life stared in Africa is not completely correct